Agonist Any molecule that improves the activity of a different molecule; e.g., a hormone, which acts as an agonist when it binds to its receptor, thus triggering a biochemical response.
Amino acids A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins. The sequence of amino acids in a protein determines the structure and function of the protein.
Analog A drug whose structure is related to that of another drug but whose chemical and biological properties may be quite different.
Antagonist A molecule that blocks the ability of a given chemical to bind to its receptor, preventing a biological response.
ArgoGel Trademark of Argonaut Technologies, San Carlos, California, USA. Beaded
solid support with a crosslinked polystyrene core and grafted linear poly (ethylene glycol)
(PEG) chains with terminal functional groups.
Array Synthesis Form of parallel synthesis in which the reaction vessels are maintained in a specified spatial distribution, e.g. the wells of a 96-well plate or pins held in a rack.
Assay A biological test, measurement or analysis to determine whether compounds have the desired effect either in a living organism, outside an organism, or in an artificial environment.
An aliquot of a library which will allow the library to be screened in a single assay. Particularly applicable to libraries prepared by split/pool procedure, where it pertains to the number of particles required to sample a library. Generally consists of a specified number of library equivalents.
Bioassay Determination of the relative strength of a drug by comparing its effect on a test organism with that of a standard preparation.
Biochemicals Compounds that are either naturally occurring or identical to naturally occurring substances. Examples include hormones, pheromones, and enzymes.
Bioavailability The percentage of drug that is detected in the systemic circulation after its administration. Losses can be attributed to an inherent lack of absorption/passage into the systemic circulation and/or to metabolic clearance. Detection of drug can be accomplished pharmacodynamically (quantification of a biological response to the drug) or pharmacokinetically (quantification of actual drug concentration). Oral bioavailability is associated with orally administered drugs.
Biotechnology The industrial application of living organisms and/or biological techniques developed through basic research. Biotechnology products include pharmaceutical compounds and research materials.
Binary Code Relationship between a set of tags and their corresponding ligands where building block identity is denoted by the presence or absence of a given tag or set of tags (i.e. the two "bits" 1 and 0).